039 Dissolving noun clusters

In all but the most formal, academic and technical of styles it is often best to avoid clusters of nouns, at least until the reader is familiar with the combination of ideas involved.  Instead, use prepositions to link the nouns. The prepositions add clarity to the phrase—they show more fully how the nouns relate to one […]

038 Řešení

One of those slippery words that often seem to elude classic dictionary translations (resolution, solution, design, project, answer, way ahead, way forward). Words of this kind occasionally need to be broken down into simple common-frequency words: Vážený zákazniku, Děkujeme Vám za e-mail zaslaný na adresu x a potvrzujeme tímto jeho přijetí. O vyřešení nebo stavu […]

037 Pleonasms

English traditionally has its own fair share of pleonastic adjectives (e.g. „free gift“), but discreet removal is advisable in many cases. vzajemná spoluprace collaboration jiné podobné služby Similar services další hlubší studium further study

036 Participle replaced or omitted

Quite frequently, participle modifiers of this kind can be rendered more naturally by simple articles, demonstratives or possessive pronouns: Měl vykyvné polonápravy obvykle konstrukce Tatra. Použitý motor Tatra 108 byl odvozen od známého dvanáctiválcového motoru Tatra 111. It had the standard Tatra-design swinging half-axle, and its Tatra 108 engine was developed from the well-known twelve-cylinder Tatra […]

035 Vliv

Special treatment is occasionally required when „mit vliv na“ seems to come close to expressing „result in“. Mandatář je povinen informovat mandanta o zařizování záležitosti a oznámit mu všechny okolnosti, které se dozvěděl nebo zjistil při výkonu své činnosti a jež mohou mít vliv na změnu pokynů mandanta. The mandatary shall keep the mandator informed […]

034 Czech negative conditional –> English negative indicative

There is a strong tendency in Czech to use the conditional to detail an inexistent situation introduced in a subordinate clause, whereas English often does this with the indicative. Naše zkušebny nejsou zpochybnovany, ani nejsou signály, ze by naše vyrobky neodpovidaly normám, nebo že by u nich byla shoda prohlašena nepravdivě.         […]

033 Recasting prepositional clauses

A Czech prepositional clause in initial position (or sometimes elsewhere) can often sound more natural and less fussy in English when it is recast to indicate that an agent performs a direct action. This issue frequently arises in the pattern: „V [document] podmět/autor [verb]“, which can often be reduced to: „[document] [verb]“. V uvodních kapitolách […]

032 Headings and titles

There is often a difference between English and Czech usage in the way titles and headings are dealt with in business, academic and other formal domains. For example, Czech diagram or graph titles will often include a ‚lead-in word‘ like ‚popis‘, ‚graf‘ or some other description of basic function, which would normally be taken as […]

031 Insertion of idioms

In Paragraphs on Translation Peter Newmark says, „the English language […] makes more use of idioms than some other languages do“. On the strength of this greater frequency of idioms in English he defends such translations as a poco distanza – a stone’s throw or il suo costo altissimo – its staggering cost. Native Czech […]

030 And/or

„And“ sometimes needs to be inserted before the final item in some lists: Cena instalačního materiálu (kabely, vodiče, pomocný materiál) Price of installation material (cables, conductors and auxiliary material) „And“ needs to replace „or“ in some lists. Treat all conjunctions with suspicion on a case-by-case basis. Jiří Pechar (1986, p. 11) reports that the Czech “a” cannot be […]