014 Present historic

Occasionally crops up in journalistic style, where it usually needs to be transformed into the appropriate past tense.  Pro úplnost doplňme bronz Fučíka mezi muži a dva bronzy juniora Skop – ten si ještě o místo polepšil na ME 1995, kde ovšem zustal zcela ve stínu zlata a stribra Petra Jelínka. Mezi muži se po […]

013 Or not to be

!!!An important source of information are questionnaires Questionnaires are an important source of information Where subject and complement are of different numbers, the English verb normally follows the number of the subject, whereas Czech allows for either. The Czech verb být is „stronger“ than English „to be“ , in that it can stand more easily […]

012 Componential analysis

It frequently happens in descriptive and expressive language that a low-frequency word has to be put through the following process: Break it down into all its primary and secondary, conceptual and connotative meanings Decide which of these have any valency within the given context. Pare these down to two words (or at very most three […]

011 Repetition

Some notes on repetition: With its well-developed system of endings denoting gender, Czech usually has less need to repeat a noun for the sake of clarity than English has. Knittlova notes: Opakování lexikalní jednotky v nezměněné podobě považuje česká stylistická norma za poněkud těžkopadné, pokud nejde o součást autorova záměru, a dává přednost dalším možnostem. […]

010 Personalizing personnel

Trvá soustředěná pozornost nastupující generací kvalifikovaných delnických profesí, kterých je na trhu práce vážný nedostatek. Attention continues to be concentrated on the upcoming generation of qualified tradesmen, of whom there is a serious lack on the labour market today. I am told there has been a tradition in Czech bureaucratese going back even before the […]

009 Anaphora and cataphora

Čeština se liší v uživání kataforických odkazů, tj odkazů směrem dopředu. Jsou mnohem méně časté než v angličtině a překladatel by měl uvažovat o jejich převedení a odkazy anaforické (t.j. směrem zpět) When she came home, Helen saw… Když Helena přišla domu, viděla… She was a pretty woman, Helen. Helena byla teda fakt krásná ženská [Knittlova]

008 With

An underestimated little word that can soak up a lot of verbosity. vzhledem k náběhu výroby with production just starting Vzhledem k tomu, ze jsou pryč tři pracovnici, musíme uzavřit obchod With three members of staff away, we’ll have to close the shop

007 Fields, areas, spheres, frameworks and circles

It is a truism that we can very often discard „v oblasti“, „v oboru“, „na poli“ etc as understood: Pracuje v oblasti pocitačů – He works in computers Působí ve sfeře bankovnictví – He is in banking While „v ramci“ often needs paraphrasing or ignoring or occasionally is neatly expressed by „within“ or „as part of“, „na […]

006 Hyponyms and hyperonyms

One of the differences I find between Czech and English in the lexical sphere is that of the greater or lesser degree of specificity used in referring to certain objects, i.e. the use of hyponyms and hyperonyms. Consider, in your typical French thriller, when a robber enters a bank, bystanders shout, „Attention, il a un […]

005 Post-position adjectives

The position of an adjective before or after a noun can occasionally change its entire meaning in English. As you drive into Prague, why do the numerous roadside hoardings offering „free rooms“ strike you as not quite right? Because sometimes an adjective before a noun can denote a permanent state and after a noun a […]