010 Personalizing personnel

Trvá soustředěná pozornost nastupující generací kvalifikovaných delnických profesí, kterých je na trhu práce vážný nedostatek. Attention continues to be concentrated on the upcoming generation of qualified tradesmen, of whom there is a serious lack on the labour market today. I am told there has been a tradition in Czech bureaucratese going back even before the […]

009 Anaphora and cataphora

Čeština se liší v uživání kataforických odkazů, tj odkazů směrem dopředu. Jsou mnohem méně časté než v angličtině a překladatel by měl uvažovat o jejich převedení a odkazy anaforické (t.j. směrem zpět) When she came home, Helen saw… Když Helena přišla domu, viděla… She was a pretty woman, Helen. Helena byla teda fakt krásná ženská [Knittlova]

008 With

An underestimated little word that can soak up a lot of verbosity. vzhledem k náběhu výroby with production just starting Vzhledem k tomu, ze jsou pryč tři pracovnici, musíme uzavřit obchod With three members of staff away, we’ll have to close the shop

007 Fields, areas, spheres, frameworks and circles

It is a truism that we can very often discard „v oblasti“, „v oboru“, „na poli“ etc as understood: Pracuje v oblasti pocitačů – He works in computers Působí ve sfeře bankovnictví – He is in banking While „v ramci“ often needs paraphrasing or ignoring or occasionally is neatly expressed by „within“ or „as part of“, „na […]

006 Hyponyms and hyperonyms

One of the differences I find between Czech and English in the lexical sphere is that of the greater or lesser degree of specificity used in referring to certain objects, i.e. the use of hyponyms and hyperonyms. Consider, in your typical French thriller, when a robber enters a bank, bystanders shout, „Attention, il a un […]

005 Post-position adjectives

The position of an adjective before or after a noun can occasionally change its entire meaning in English. As you drive into Prague, why do the numerous roadside hoardings offering „free rooms“ strike you as not quite right? Because sometimes an adjective before a noun can denote a permanent state and after a noun a […]

004 Overuse of participle forms

Prepositional phrases are often preferred to straight participles in higher registers: It is being reconstructed — it is under reconstruction The observed team — the team under observation The considered design — the design in question The disputed matter — the matter in dispute Základem bezpečnosti je sama použitá technologie The basis for this security […]

003 Possessive pronouns

There are many cases where a possessive pronoun needs to be recast in some other form, particularly where it acts as direct object of a verb: Tento výčet deseti doporučení není jistě vyčerpávajici, ale jejich důsledné uplatnění vždy výrazně změnilo průbeh a předevšim výsledky pravidelných pořád sledovaných manažerských týmů. This list of ten recommendations is […]

002 Explicative genitive

In his The Noun in Translation, Ales Klegr describes „an interesting difference between Czech and English: the much-favoured construction in Czech, termed the explicative genitive, in which the head (a general or generic term) is specified by a narrower, lower-level term (e.g. a hyponym). In translation, this tends to be reduced to the modifying element […]

001 Anaphors

Anaphoric adjectives such as zmíněný, dotyčný, příslušný, naznačený, daný and předmětný are common in formal Czech texts, but English dictionary equivalents such as the aforementioned, the above or the said occur much less frequently and can raise the style to the ‚very, very formal‘ level (old-school legal texts etc), making a standard formal text sound […]