052 Have: various uses

Some notes on the various meanings of the have + infinitive/ing structure

Causative meaning                                                  

She had us working day after day

They had me repeat the message

Existential meaning

Also used with a non-causative ‘undergo’ sense. An existential device parallel to existential ‚there‘. Also referred to as experiential:

They had a few supporters helping them = There were a few supporters helping them.

Poldauf refers to this as a construction of ‘concerned participation’ – the ‚have‘ construction makes someone interested in the subject. Like ‚find‘, ‚feel‘ and ‚see‘. It can meet functional sentence perspective requirements.

The problem arises when it comes to disambiguating ‚have‘ as causative or existential.

In British English the construction is very infrequent and if used at all, translations show that it is causative more often than not.

The concept of causation has to be seen in the broader context of force dynamicsTalmy uses this idea of force dynamics to explain constructions like have/make/let/help . The causer can also be an affected participant. The causer can be affected by the event it caused:

Last week we had two new galleries opening.

The Czech translation does not always disambiguate between the two readings.

Not only is there a high number of zero correspondences, but very often even if a particular reading is adopted, an alternative translation can be supplied.

Test frames:

The different forms can be identified by applying the following test phrases:

What happened to the noun phrase was —> experiential

What the noun phrase did was —> causative

Try to —> causative

Despite their exposure to the frigid winds, the hard labor soon had them soaked in sweat.         Ač byli vystaveni mrazivému větru, z těžké práce byli zakrátko promáčeni potem.

Of course scientists did not appreciate having their discoveries used by the church to promote religion.                                                                                                                                                                 Samozřejmě, že se vědcúm nelíbilo, když církev využívala jejích objevy k propagaci náboženství.

Causative — normally nechat, dat 

I had him transferred to the hospital                                                                                                          Nechal jsem ho převézt do nemocnice

I had my tonsils removed                                                                                                                                           Nechal jsem si vytrhnout mandle                                                                                                                  Vytrhli mi mandle

Here competing causative and experiential readings show that they can actually complement one another

But other options exist

I’ll have them packed off back to Azkaban tonight.                                                                           Kdepak, zařídím, aby se ještě dnes večer vrátil do Azkabanu.

You didn’t have him killed                                                                                                                          Nezemřel ale na tvůj rozkaz.

Have them unbound and taken away.                                                                                                                 Ať je odvážou a odvedou.

We’re not having people slopping around                                                                                                    Nikomu nedovolíme, aby se tu flákal.                                                                                                            Nikdo se nám tu nebude flákat

Condensation in the Czech

She hadn’t had her hair done in a couple of days                                                                                           Už pár dnů nebyla u holiče

Perhaps it had broken and he’d taken it somewhere to have it repaired                                        Možná se rozbil a odvezl ho někam do opravny.

The Czech free dative can be used for experiential meaning

I had two dogs die of snake bite                                                                                                                          Dva psi mi umřeli na hadí uštknutí

Have you had your blood pressure checked recently?                                                                              Měřil vám někdo v poslední době tlak?

So now we can have people object                                                                                                                    Tak teď můžeme lidi nechat protestovat

All that the opposition would have us do was to hand out more and more fish.                           Opozice po nás bude chtít jen víc a víc ryb.

It’s a bit like opening doors and having people come in                                                                 …nechat lidi vejít dovnitř                                                                                                                                    …lidé vám sem přijdou

I had three people try to ring me.                                                                                                                      Zkoušeli se mi dovolat tři lidé.

John had that happen to him once at school.                                                                                         Johnu se to kdysi stalo ve škole.

I’ve had my husband leave me for a younger woman.                                                                       Manžel mě opustil kvůli mladší ženě.                                                                                                          Manžel mi odešel za mladší ženou.

The latter expresses the ‘concerned’ aspect better.

He’s never had anyone fetch the makings of colours for him before, though.                                  Ale ještě nikdy si nikoho pro suroviny na barvy neposlal.

I had one catch me in the elevator this afternoon.                                                                                    Dnes odpoledne mě jeden z nich chytil ve výtahu.

I’ll have you drop me off there first thing Friday morning.                                                                 Budeš mě tam muset v pátek hned ráno odvézt.

I will not have anyone see these.                                                                                                                     Tohle nesmí nikdo vidět.

We’ll have someone pick us up.                                                                                                                             Někdo nás tam určitě hodí.

On Monday he would have the secretary check the computer files.                                                        V pondělí požádá sekretářku, aby můj seznam srovnala…

Have the maid bring it to us.                                                                                                                                    Ať nám ho přinese služka.

We’ll have Klipspringer play the piano                                                                                                     Klipspringer nám musí zahrát na klavír.

In American English the percentage of zero correspondences is quite high. Have is completely lost in about 32% of cases.

I’d hate to have him get anything on me.                                                                                             Nechtěla bych, aby na mě něco věděl.

Existential examples:

It had large characters printed on the side                                                                                                       Na boku tašky se skvěla velká písmena

The Playbook’s cover has a flowery pyramid embossed on it                                                                  Na obálce Vědy hrou je plasticky vyvedená pyramid z květin.

„Čeština (ostatně podobně jako angličtina) umožňuje kauzativní interpretaci i tam, kde kauzativní konstrukce či sloveso není užito: věta Budeme rekonstruovat koupelnu ve většině případů neznamená, že majitelé budou rekonstrukci provádět sami.“

About a fifth of corpus examples were dealt with in this way.

Even if she’d had her clothes done at Rosenbau’s, she’d still have looked like a bloated snowman!                                                                                                                                                                        Ta kdyby šila u Rosenbauma, bude pořád vypadat jako hodně napapanej sněhulák.

Have it faxed to all that other agencies                                                                                                       Odfaxujte ji dalším agenturám.

There are many other cases with zero correspondence

I’ve just had this place redone                                                                                                                                  Je to tady nově zařízeno

And others where have is translated directly

I’m sure you have everything mapped out                                                                                                Určitě máš všechno naplánované

N.B. Gilquin differentiates 1] experiential, 2] existential and 3] lexical constructions:

1] Unfortunately Lorraine had her bag stolen.

2] And you had a scientist up there talking about pilgrimages.

3] Mr Gorbachev has very few cards left to play.

From

Categories and categorial changes: The third syntactical plan and beyond                   Edited by M. Martinková, M. Janebová and J. Macháček — Palacký University 2014

Chapter 2: Cause and concern: The have construction with the infinitive seen through its Czech translation equivalents — by Michaela Martinková

and

Jazykové paralely (edited by Anna Čermáková, Lucie Chlumská, Markéta Malá)

Chapter 2: Vazby kauzativní a vazby experiencální: paralely anglického slovesa have se sekundární predikací — by Michaela Martinková

 

 

Napsat komentář

Vaše emailová adresa nebude zveřejněna. Vyžadované informace jsou označeny *

Můžete používat následující HTML značky a atributy: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>